[214] About 8 million Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia. [56][57][58] Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. [276], The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry. [104] This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia. This is a plan that has been suggested by various Indonesian presidents over decades, but it looks like the move will finally, actually happen. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism. [90] Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. [166], Relatively steady inflation[167] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index[168] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. [43][66][67][68] In 1999, East Timor seceded from Indonesia, following its 1975 invasion by Indonesia[69] and a 25-year occupation that was marked by international condemnation of human rights abuses. [321] Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines along with dendeng and gulai. [165] Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. [271][272] There has been a marked increase of religious intolerance since 1998, with the most recent high-profile case being that of Chinese Christian former governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama. [160] The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).

Chapter XA, Article 28E, 1st Clause of the 1945 Constitution. [125] The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituante). At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). 2004. The name Indonesia derives from Greek Indos (Ἰνδός) and the word nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands". [89] The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event. Bandung-Jatinangor: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Padjadjaran: hlm. Drug trafficker on death row escapes Indonesian jail through sewers, Drought forces Indonesian farmers to learn new skills – in pictures, Indonesia investigates leak of more than two million voters' personal information, Inside the orangutan forest school where the first lesson is survival, Fear and illness stalk Indonesia's packed jails as riots break out, Jakarta to start shutdown as burials, and fears, rise amid coronavirus outbreak, Indonesia bans Ramadan exodus amid coronavirus fears, Indonesia's most active volcano spews massive ash cloud 6,000m into the air, Jakarta is also struggling under a huge environmental burden, notoriously polluted cities such as Delhi. The music of Indonesia predates historical records.

A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE.

[164] This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries. Species endemic to Indonesia. [307], Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early 1990s. This situation creates a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres (such as Sumatra and Java) and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas (such as Maluku and Papua). [262], Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016. Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. [172], Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber.

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