AFP PHOTO JPL/NASA (Photo by - / JPL/NASA / AFP) (Photo by -/JPL/NASA/AFP via Getty Images).

However, it has not yet been determined when this hypothesized shift in the spin axis might have occurred. The slow rate of progress can be attributed to the long time lags for nature to respond to measures. Agenor Linea is unique in that it is similar in width and length to dark bands seen in the northern hemisphere, but it is bright in color rather than dark. [77] Tholins bring important astrobiological implications, as they may play a role in prebiotic chemistry and abiogenesis. The dome tops look like pieces of the older plains around them, suggesting that the domes formed when the plains were pushed up from below.
The rock layer is in turn surrounded by a shell of water in ice or liquid form (shown in blue and white). This animation showing a flyover of ridged plains on Europa was created using stereo imaging data obtained by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The second [moon] is called by me Europa... Io, Europa, the boy Ganymede, and Callisto greatly pleased lustful Jupiter. [141] At that time, there was competition from other proposals. A key area where there is room to improve and to achieve better results is on chemicals. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. [64], Scientists' consensus is that a layer of liquid water exists beneath Europa's surface, and that heat from tidal flexing allows the subsurface ocean to remain liquid. When there is too much stress, it cracks.
It included the "Galileo Europa Mission" and "Galileo Millennium Mission", with numerous close flybys of Europa. Tidal forces are thought to generate the heat that keeps Europa's ocean liquid, and a tilt in the spin axis would cause more heat to be generated by tidal forces. This interpretation is controversial.

[53] The effect would have been similar to that seen in Earth's oceanic ridges. [143][144], Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was a partially developed fission-powered spacecraft with ion thrusters that was cancelled in 2006. [1], Europa is the namesake of Europa, daughter of the king of Tyre, a Phoenician noblewoman in Greek mythology. Instead, proof could arrive in the form of very distinct spectroscopic features—particularly an absorption line at 450 nanometers within the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This animation showing a flyover of the region surrounding the 9-mile (15-kilometer) wide crater Cilix on Europa was created using stereo imaging data obtained by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Could a liquid water ocean beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa have the ingredients to support life? and Pluto’s moon Charon are known to display similar behavior. [9], The slight eccentricity of Europa's orbit, maintained by the gravitational disturbances from the other Galileans, causes Europa's sub-Jovian point to oscillate around a mean position. [16][contradictory] However, the physics driving these plate tectonics are not likely to resemble those driving terrestrial plate tectonics, as the forces resisting potential Earth-like plate motions in Europa's crust are significantly stronger than the forces that could drive them. Galileo flew by Europa in 1997 within 206 km (128 mi) of the moon's surface and the researchers suggest it may have flown through a water plume.

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