Marco Margaritoff is a Staff Writer at All That Is Interesting. His book weighed 75 pounds and cost as much as $7,500. Ali replied. The consequences were dire: Ali was stripped of his boxing title, convicted of draft evasion, and sentenced to five years in prison.

The Nation of Islam showed Ali a new path. He established an antislavery publication, the True American, in Lexington, Ky., in 1845 but was forced by attacks from pro-slavery Kentuckians to move it to Cincinnati, Ohio, and then to Louisville, Ky., where it was renamed The Examiner. He installed a cannon to protect his home and office. During a political debate in 1843, he survived an assassination attempt by Sam Brown, a hired gun. Clay was adjudged insane shortly before his death. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. For a brief moment, Muhammad Ali was a Broadway actor.

At one point, he told People magazine that he regretted not spending more time with his children, but that he did not regret boxing. Before becoming Muhammad Ali, he was briefly known as Cassius X.

This action of the Emperor Alexander II was confirmed in 1904 by Wharton Barker of Pennsylvania, who in 1878 was the financial agent in the United States of the Russian government. Garrison's arguments were to him "as water is to a thirsty wayfarer.

His anti-slavery activism earned him violent enemies. Shortly after, a mob of about 60 men broke into his office and seized his printing equipment. He wasn’t just a groundbreaking athlete whose boxing prowess mesmerized the country — he was also an outspoken activist who denounced the wrongs he saw in the world. Inspired by his newfound friend Malcolm X, he changed his "slave name" of Cassius Clay into the renowned Muhammad Ali we've known ever since.

Ali and George Foreman each made $5 million from the "Rumble in the Jungle. Clay was briefly a candidate for the vice presidency at the 1860 Republican National Convention,[3] but lost the nomination to Hannibal Hamlin. Wikimedia CommonsMuhammad Ali, five years before his death in 2016 at 74 years old. In 1894, the 84-year-old Clay married Dora Richardson, the 15-year-old orphaned sister of one of his sharecropping tenants. His first professional fight was against Fayetteville, West Virginia police chief Tunney Hunsaker in 1960.

He helped free 15 American hostages in the run-up to the Gulf War. [8], In 1853, Clay granted 10 acres of his expansive lands to John G. Fee, an abolitionist, who founded the town of Berea. [15], At the 1890 Kentucky Constitutional Convention, Clay was elected by the members as the Convention's President.[16]. What will be its effect on France, and French policy, we shall learn in due time. He was a founder of the Republican Party in Kentucky and became a friend of Abraham Lincoln, supporting him for the presidency in 1860. The American Muslim sect advocated for racial separation and against the pacifism of most civil rights activism. [10], As Minister to Russia, Clay witnessed the Tsar's emancipation edict. Now they can go, 'He's human, like us. Cassius Marcellus Clay was born to Sally Lewis and Green Clay, one of the wealthiest planters and slaveholders in Kentucky, who became a prominent politician. "If I wasn't famous, I wouldn't be able to do what I'm doing now.". Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Muhammad Ali, five years before his death in 2016 at 74 years old. The FBI and the NSA spied on Muhammad Ali.

[11], Clay resigned his commission in March 1863 and returned to Russia, where he served until 1869. Lincoln sent Clay to Kentucky to assess the mood for emancipation there and in the other border states. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's the following year. [3], In 1872, Clay was one of the organizers of the Liberal Republican revolt. This was partly due to his opposition to President Grant's military interference in Haiti. The heavyweight champ famously changed his birth name, Cassius Clay, to Muhammad Ali after being educated on the Islamic faith. relive the civil rights movement in 55 powerful photos, 44 declassified Vietnam War photos taken by U.S. Army photographers. Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975, recorded a statement that Clay would be renamed to Muhammad Ali.However, Ali would continue to be referred to as Cassius Clay in the media for years after, with only a few journalists initially using his new name.

Though Ali won, the two later became friends. After taking a look at Muhammad Ali's remarkable life, relive the civil rights movement in 55 powerful photos. The 1832 Yale graduate was a staunch opponent of slavery. In the political campaigns of 1876 and 1880, Clay supported the Democratic Party candidates. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Omissions? Despite having been shot in the chest, Clay tackled Brown, and with his Bowie knife removed Brown's nose and one eye, and possibly an ear, before throwing Brown over an embankment. What met him instead was unbelievable public support, a victory in court, and a decades-long continuation of his activist efforts. For the boxer who was born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., see, "Clay, Cassius Marcellus", by Frank L. Klement, in, "The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Clarke-street to Claytee", The Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook, Newspaper article, Death Has Gripped Gen. Cassius Clay, Webster G. Tarpley: Speech for 150th Anniversary of Russian Fleets of 1863, "American Banker Wharton Barker's First-Person Account Confirms: Russian Tsar Alexander II Was Ready for War with Britain and France in 1862–1863 to Defend Lincoln and the Union", "Muhammad Ali Never Knew Grandfather Was Jailed for 25-Cent Murder", "From the Vietnam war to Islam – the key chapters in Ali’s life," Kevin Mitchell, The Guardian, 4 June 2016, "History website, Muhammad Ali: "Cassius Clay is my slave name,,, Original Letters: Abraham Lincoln to Cassius Marcellus Clay, 1860,, Members of the Kentucky House of Representatives, Ambassadors of the United States to Russia, 19th-century American newspaper publishers (people), American military personnel of the Mexican–American War, Pages using infobox officeholder with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2014, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Southern abolitionist and U.S. ambassador to Russia, Sarah "Sallie" Lewis Clay Bennett (1841 - 1935), Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr. (1843 - 1843), Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr. (1845 - 1857), This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 23:29.

By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. No matter how many I threw, I could never hit him.". He famously refused, saying that the war did not align with his faith. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Corrections? Ali had Irish roots. [7][8], In 1845, Clay began publishing an anti-slavery newspaper, True American, in Lexington, Kentucky. Nonetheless, Ali traveled to Lebanon in 1985 on a humanitarian mission, and helped negotiate the release of American hostages in Iraq in 1990.

"I'm in no pain," he said. He once talked a would-be suicide victim off the ledge. He lit the Olympic flame in Atlanta in 1996, despite his trembling arms.

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